Openstack – Delete Cinder Stuck Volume

Recently, I was using Devstack/Ocata version of OpenStack and was trying to  attach/detach volumes to an instance. Every once in a while, volumes would go to an   ‘in-use’ state even after the instance was destroyed.

In fact, even in other releases, I have seen cinder volumes stuck in in-use or error state and sometimes not being able to delete those.

If the volume is in ‘in-use’ status, you first have to change to an available status though before you can issue a delete:

cinder reset-state –state available $VOLUME_ID

cinder delete $VOLUME_ID

If ‘cinder delete’ doesn’t work and you have admin privileges, you can try force-delete.

cinder force-delete $VOLUME_ID

But may be that will fix it. May be it will not. If the volume is still stuck, try going to the database and setting the status of the volume to a detached state:

update volume_attachment setattach_status="detached"where id="<attachment_id>";
update volumes setattach_status="detached"where id="<volume_id>";
Once I did that, I was able to delete or force-delete any stuck volumes. 🙂
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Openstack Docker Networking – Issues Roadmap & Resolution steps

In this blog we are going to see common issues with docker networking and steps to consider for configuration and troubleshooting ways.

Common Issues discussed in stackoverflow, docker forum and ask.openstack

  • Openstack Networking is a complex topic and Docker networking is continuously evolving in every release and this makes it difficult for folks to figure out the right feature to use for their use-case
  • When applications are taken from development to production, networking needs change and the typical approaches don’t always help.
  • Enterprise customers have lot of legacy applications and the networking needs to satisfy connecting legacy non-containerized applications with the new container based micro services.

Resolution Methods & Considerations with docker infra management

  • Docker Networking Components, Docker Daemon includes accessing remotely & securely, Corporate Firewall considerations, preventing IP table modification, Container networking, Swarm/Service networking includes Routing Mesh vs HRM & Troubleshooting methods for resolving docker networking issues.

 

 

Here link to my slides, Please add input corrections need to changes .

 

References:

https://wiki.openstack.org/wiki/Docker

https://www.docker.com/docker-community

Dockercon videos around networking topics

Terraform – Install and Orchestrate Part-1

Introduction

The primitives of terraform used to define infrastructure as a code (IaaC). You can build, change and version your infrastructure in AWS, Digital Ocean, Google Cloud, Heroku, Microsoft Azure etc. using the same tool. Describe components of your single application or entire data center using terraform. In this tutorial, we will create an infrastructure using terraform and provision AWS EC2 instance.

Install Terraform

To install Terraform, find the appropriate package for your system and download it. Terraform is packaged as a zip archive.

After downloading Terraform, unzip the package. Terraform runs as a single binary named terraform. Any other files in the package can be safely removed and Terraform will still function.

The final step is to make sure that the terraform binary is available on the PATH. See this page for instructions on setting the PATH on Linux and Mac. This page contains instructions for setting the PATH on Windows.

[pandy@maestropandy ~]$ cd /usr/local/src
[root@maestropandy]# wget https://releases.hashicorp.com/terraform/0.9.11/terraform_0.9.11_linux_amd64.zip?_ga=2.158618490.1572651985.1499345696-1866648534.1499345696

[root@maestropandy]# unzip terraform_0.9.11_linux_amd64.zip\?_ga\=2.158618490.1572651985.1499345696-1866648534.1499345696

[root@maestropandy]# mv terraform /usr/local/bin/

Now add the following line to add terraform in PATH location.

export PATH=$PATH:/terraform-path/

Verify Installation

[root@maestropandy]# terraform
Usage: terraform [–version] [–help] <command> [args]

The available commands for execution are listed below.
The most common, useful commands are shown first, followed by
less common or more advanced commands. If you’re just getting
started with Terraform, stick with the common commands. For the
other commands, please read the help and docs before usage.

Common commands:
apply Builds or changes infrastructure
console Interactive console for Terraform interpolations
destroy Destroy Terraform-managed infrastructure
env Environment management
fmt Rewrites config files to canonical format
get Download and install modules for the configuration
graph Create a visual graph of Terraform resources
import Import existing infrastructure into Terraform
init Initialize a new or existing Terraform configuration
output Read an output from a state file
plan Generate and show an execution plan
push Upload this Terraform module to Atlas to run
refresh Update local state file against real resources
show Inspect Terraform state or plan
taint Manually mark a resource for recreation
untaint Manually unmark a resource as tainted
validate Validates the Terraform files
version Prints the Terraform version

All other commands:
debug Debug output management (experimental)
force-unlock Manually unlock the terraform state
state Advanced state management

 

Now succesfully Terraform installed on ubuntu machine, lets create AWS user account, and download keys.

  1. Click Users from IAM dashboard.
  1. Click “Add user”
  1. Provide an user name and click only “Programmatic access”. We have provided user name as “terraformuser”. Click “Next:Permission”
  1. Next click “Create Group”. Provide a group name and in the policy type, filter by AmazonEC2. Select the first row which which gives Amazon EC2 full access.
  1. Click “Next: Review”
  1. Click “Create user”

Download the newly created users Access key ID and Secret key by clicking “Download .csv’. These credentials are needed to connect to Amazon EC2 service through terraform.

Convert .pem key into .ppk format your use.

Terraform file

As we are already aware that terraform is a command line tool for creating, updating and versioning infrastructure in the cloud then obviously we want to know how does it do so? Terraform describes infrastructure in a file using the language called Hashicorp Configuration Language (HCL) with the extension of .tf It is a declarative language that describes infrastructure in the cloud. When we write our infrastructure using HCL in .tf file, terraform generates an execution plan that describes what it will do to reach the desired state. Once execution plan is ready, terraform executes the plan and generates a state file by the name terraform.tfstate by default. This file maps resource meta data to the actual resource ID and lets terraform knows what it is managing in the cloud.

Terraform and provision AWS

To deploy an EC2 instance through terraform create a file with extension .tf This file contains namely two section. The first section declares the provider (in our case it is AWS). In provider section we will specify the access key and secret key that is written in the CSV file which we have downloaded earlier while creating EC2 user. Also choose the region of your choice. The resource block defines what resources we want to create. Since we want to create EC2 instance therefore we specified with “aws_instance” and the instance attributes inside it like ami, instance_type and tags. To find the EC2 images browse ubuntu cloud image.

[root@maestropandy]# cd
[root@maestropandy ~]# mkdir terraform
[root@maestropandy ~]# cd terraform/
[root@maestropandy terraform]# vi aws.tf

provider “aws” {
access_key = “ZKIAITH7YUGAZZIYYSZA”
secret_key = “UlNapYqUCg2m4MDPT9Tlq+64BWnITspR93fMNc0Y”
region = “ap-southeast-1”
}

resource “aws_instance” “example” {
ami = “ami-83a713e0”
instance_type = “t2.micro”
tags {
Name = “your-instance”
}
}

Apply terraform plan first to find out what terraform will do. The terraform plan will let us know what changes, additions and deletions will be done to the infrastructure before actually applying it. The resources with ‘+’ sign are going to be created, resources with ‘-‘ sign are going to be deleted and resources with ‘~’ sign are going to be modified.

[root@maestropandy terraform]# terraform plan

Now to create the instance, execute terraform apply

 

[root@maestropandy terraform]# terraform apply

aws_instance.example: Creating…
ami:                                                   “” => “ami-83a713e0”
associate_public_ip_address:             “” => “<computed>”
availability_zone:                                “” => “<computed>”
ebs_block_device.#:                          “” => “<computed>”
ephemeral_block_device.#:                “” => “<computed>”
instance_state:                                    “” => “<computed>”
instance_type:                                     “” => “t2.micro”
key_name:                                          “” => “<computed>”
network_interface_id:                         “” => “<computed>”
placement_group:                               “” => “<computed>”
private_dns:                                        “” => “<computed>”
private_ip:                                          “” => “<computed>”
public_dns:                                         “” => “<computed>”
public_ip:                                           “” => “<computed>”
root_block_device.#:                          “” => “<computed>”
security_groups.#:                              “” => “<computed>”
source_dest_check:                           “” => “true”
subnet_id:                                          “” => “<computed>”
tags.%:                                              “” => “1”
tags.Name:                                        “” => “your-instance”
tenancy:                                             “” => “<computed>”
vpc_security_group_ids.#:                 “” => “<computed>”
aws_instance.example: Still creating… (10s elapsed)
aws_instance.example: Still creating… (20s elapsed)
aws_instance.example: Creation complete

Apply complete! Resources: 1 added, 0 changed, 0 destroyed.

The state of your infrastructure has been saved to the path
below. This state is required to modify and destroy your
infrastructure, so keep it safe. To inspect the complete state
use the `terraform show` command.

Next  we head over to EC2 dashboard, we will find that the new instance being initializing.

 

terraform instance

Now we have successfully created AWS EC2 Instance using Terraform, say cheers to yourself 🙂

 

Reference

https://www.terraform.io/intro/getting-started/install.html

Tacker Installation Openstack

what is Tacker?

Tacker is an official OpenStack project building a Generic VNF Manager (VNFM) and a NFV Orchestrator (NFVO) to deploy and operate Network Services and Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) on an NFV infrastructure platform like OpenStack. It is based on ETSI MANO Architectural Framework and provides a functional stack to Orchestrate Network Services end-to-end using VNFs.

 

High Level ArchitectureETSI MANO Tacker.JPG

To know more about architecture  click Tacker

Installation on single node setup (Devstack)

1) Pull devstack repo either master or any stable releases ( do “git clone -b stable/<stable release name>

Note: supported from the Openstack Kilo Release.

git clone https://github.com/openstack-dev/devstack

3) A sample local.conf is placed at https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openstack/tacker/master/devstack/samples/local.conf.example. Copy the local.conf to devstack root directory and customize it based on your environment settings. Update the HOST_IP to the IP address of VM or host where you are running tacker.

Note 1: Ensure local.conf file has the “enable_plugin tacker” line and it is pointing to master.

4) Run stack.sh

Installation on Multinode setup:

Prerequisites:

  • Hardware: minimum 8GB RAM, Ubuntu (version 14.04)
  • Ensure that OpenStack components Keystone, Glance, Nova, Neutron, Heat and Horizon are installed.
  • Git & Python packages should be installed

sudo apt-get install python-pip git

Steps:

  1. Create Client environment source file

export OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_ID=default
export OS_USER_DOMAIN_ID=default
export OS_PROJECT_NAME=admin
export OS_TENANT_NAME=admin
export OS_USERNAME=admin
export OS_PASSWORD=ADMIN_PASS
export OS_AUTH_URL=http://controller:35357/v3
export OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION=3

 

Ensure entry for extensions drivers in /etc/neutron/plugins/ml2/ml2_conf.ini Restart neutron services after the below entry has been added.[ml2] extension_drivers = port_security

 

Modify heat’s policy.json file under /etc/heat/policy.json file to allow users in non-admin projects with ‘admin’ roles to create flavors."resource_types:OS::Nova::Flavor": "role:admin"

Install Tacker server

Before you install and configure Tacker server, you must create a database, service credentials, and API endpoints.

 

  1. To create the database, complete these steps:
    • Use the database access client to connect to the database server as the root user:mysql -u root -p
    • Create the tacker database:create database tacker;
    • Grant proper access to the tacker database: GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON tacker.* TO 'tacker'@'localhost' \
      IDENTIFIED BY 'TACKER_DBPASS';
      GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON tacker.* TO 'tacker'@'%' \
      IDENTIFIED BY 'TACKER_DBPASS';
        Replace ‘TACKER_DBPASS’ with a suitable password.
    • Exit the database access client.
  2. Source the admin credentials to gain access to adminonly CLI commands:source admin-openrc.sh
  3. To create the service credentials, complete these steps:
    • Create the tacker user:
    • openstack user create --domain default --password <PASSWORD> tacker
    • Replace <PASSWORD> with a suitable password
    • Add the admin role to the tacker user:
    • openstack role add --project services --user tacker admin
      Note: Project_name can be service or services. Verify the project_name under [keystone_authtoken] section in the /etc/nova/nova.conf file.
    • Create the tacker service
    • openstack service create --name tacker --description "nfv-orchestration" servicevm
    • Create the tacker service API endpoints:
      • openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne <Service Type or Service ID> public http:// <TACKER_NODE_IP> :8888
        openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne <Service Type or Service ID> admin http:// <TACKER_NODE_IP> :8888
        openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne <Service Type or Service ID> internal http:// <TACKER_NODE_IP> :8888
  4. Clone tacker repositorygit clone -b stable/liberty https://github.com/openstack/tacker
  5. 5. Install all requirements. The requirements.txt file contains a set of python-packages required to run Tacker-Servercd tacker   sudo pip install -r requirements.txt 
    Note: If OpenStack components mentioned in pre-requisites section have been installed, the below command would be sufficient. cd tacker   sudo pip install tosca-parser
  6. Install tackersudo python setup.py install
  7. Create ‘tacker’ directory in ‘/var/log’
    Note:The above referenced path ‘/var/log’ is for Ubuntu and may be different for other Operating Systems.sudo mkdir /var/log/tacker
  8. Edit tacker.conf to ensure the below entries:
    Note:

      1. In Ubuntu 14.04, the tacker.conf is located at /usr/local/etc/tacker/ and below ini sample is for Ubuntu and directory paths referred in ini may be different for other Operating Systems.
      2. Project_name can be service or services. Verify the project_name in [keystone_authtoken] section in the /etc/nova/nova.conf file.

    [DEFAULT]
    auth_strategy = keystone
    policy_file = /usr/local/etc/tacker/policy.json
    debug = True
    use_syslog = False
    state_path = /var/lib/tacker
    ...
    [keystone_ authtoken]
    project_name = services
    password = <TACKER_SERVICE_USER_PASSWORD>
    auth_url = http://<KEYSTONE_IP&gt;:35357
    identity_uri = http://<KEYSTONE_IP&gt;:5000
    auth_uri = http://<KEYSTONE_IP&gt;:5000   ...
    [agent]
    root_helper = sudo /usr/local/bin/tacker-rootwrap
    /usr/local/etc/tacker/rootwrap.conf
    ...
    [DATABASE]
    connection =
    mysql://tacker:<TACKERDB_PASSWORD>@<MYSQL_IP>:3306/tacker?charset=utf8
    ...
    [servicevm_nova]
    password = <NOVA_SERVICE_USER_PASSWORD>
    auth_url = http://<NOVA_IP&gt;:35357
    ...
    [servicev m_heat]
    heat_uri = http://<HEAT_IP&gt;:8004/v1

  9. Populate Tacker database:
    Note:The below command is for Ubuntu Operating System/usr/local/bin/tacker-db-manage --config-file /usr/local/etc/tacker/tacker.conf upgrade head

Install Tacker client

  1. Clone tacker-client repository.cd ~/
    git clone -b stable/liberty https://github.com/openstack/python-tackerclient
  2. Install tacker-client.cd python-tackerclient
    sudo python setup.py install

Install Tacker horizon

  1. Clone tacker-horizon repository.cd ~/
    git clone -b stable/liberty https://github.com/openstack/tacker-horizon
  2. Install horizon module.cd tacker-horizon
    sudo python setup.py install 
  3. Enable tacker horizon in dashboard.
    Note:The below destination path referred is for Ubuntu 14.04 and may change for other Operating Systems.sudo cp openstack_dashboard_extensions/* /usr/share/openstack-dashboard/openstack_dashboard/enabled/
  4. Restart Apache serversudo service apache2 restart

Starting Tacker server

Note:Ensure that ml2_conf.ini as per Step 4 from the pre-requisites section has been configured.
sudo python /usr/local/bin/tacker-server --config-file /usr/local/etc/tacker/tacker.conf --log-file /var/log/tacker/tacker.log &

 

Testing Tacker

Run the following tacker commands to verify whether tacker is working finetacker ext-list
tacker vnf-list
tacker device-list

 

A simple set of vnfd-create, vnf-create and vnf-update commands are shown below.

tacker vnfd-create –name ${VNFD_NAME} –vnfd-file ${VNFD_TOSCA_YAML-FILE}

tacker vnf-create –name vnf-name –vnfd-id ${VNFD_ID}

tacker vnf-update –config “${CONFIG_DATA_YAML} ${VNF_ID}

If command-line tacker works fine, try out Tacker using Horizon (NFV left menu entry)

Now Tacker is ready, start to play !!

Openstack -Delete Bulk Instances

 

Many of operation engineer look for solution how to delete instances in bulk from CLI or CURL call to reduce time effort, here is the filter method to do it, but please make sure that really you want to delete in bulk.

 

Here the best script method which i follows to do,

Source with required tenant, if you do as admin will delete all projects, so make sure of it.

Now run below CLI, which basically lists servers and grep its ID and do nova delete

nova list | awk '$2 && $2 != "ID" {print $2}' | xargs -n1 nova delete

In particular, the solution from dbxs uses the “name” field. If there are multiple instances with the same name, the “nova delete” operation will fali with:

Multiple server matches found for 'c0', use an ID to be more specific.
ERROR: Unable to delete any of the specified servers.

Gitlab – 502 Bad Gateway Error Troubleshooting

Lets do:

In a perfect world GitLab would now be running perfectly. Unfortunately, GitLab has surprisingly high memory requirements, so on 512MB VPSs it often chokes on the first sign in. This is because GitLab uses a lot of memory on the very first login. Since the Ubuntu 12.04 VPS has no swap space when the memory is exceeded parts of GitLab get terminated. Needless to say GitLab does not run well when parts of it are being unexpectedly terminated.

The easiest solution is just to allocate more memory to your VPS, at least for the first sign in. If you don’t want to do that, another option is to increase swap space. DigitalOcean already has a full tutorial on how to do this available here (although I would recommend adding more than just 512MB of swap). The quick fix is to run the following:

sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/swapfile bs=1024 count=1024k
sudo mkswap /swapfile
sudo swapon /swapfile

Your swapfile is now running and active, but to set it so that it’s activated on each boot we need to edit/etc/fstab:

sudo nano /etc/fstab

Paste the following onto the bottom of the file:

/swapfile       none    swap    sw      0       0 

Now restart your VPS:

sudo restart

Wait a minute or two for your VPS to reboot, and then try GitLab again. If it doesn’t work the first time, refresh the Bad Gateway page a couple of times, and you should soon see the GitLab login page.

References:

  1. Check out the excellent Gitlab installation documentation here.
  2. And for info on the 502 bad gateway error, check this thread.

Openstack -Metering resource usage

red-business-graph

 

In Openstack, Telemetry service provides user-level usage data which can be used for customer billing, system monitoring, or alerts. Data can be collected by notifications sent by existing OpenStack components, Can view resource usage in dashboard as well as in CLI.

Resource Usage via Dashboard

  1. Log in to the dashboard and select the admin project from the drop-down list.
  2. On the Admin tab, click the Resource Usage category.
  3. Click the:
    • Usage Report tab to view a usage report per tenant (project) by specifying the time period (or even use a calendar to define a date range).
    • Stats tab to view a multi-series line chart with user-defined meters. You group by project, define the value type (min, max, avg, or sum), and specify the time period (or even use a calendar to define a date range).

Usage statistics via Nova

Though telemetry services are coming up, nova is doing needful greatly, with nova can retrieve host usage statistics instantly.

Host Usage statistics

  • List the hosts and the nova-related services that run on them:

    $ nova host-list
    +-----------+-------------+----------+
    | host_name | service     | zone     |
    +-----------+-------------+----------+
    | devstack  | conductor   | internal |
    | devstack  | compute     | nova     |
    | devstack  | cert        | internal |
    | devstack  | network     | internal |
    | devstack  | scheduler   | internal |
    | devstack  | consoleauth | internal |
    +-----------+-------------+----------+
    
  • Get a summary of resource usage of all of the instances running on the host:

    $ nova host-describe devstack
    +----------+----------------------------------+-----+-----------+---------+
    | HOST     | PROJECT                          | cpu | memory_mb | disk_gb |
    +----------+----------------------------------+-----+-----------+---------+
    | devstack | (total)                          | 2   | 4003      | 157     |
    | devstack | (used_now)                       | 3   | 5120      | 40      |
    | devstack | (used_max)                       | 3   | 4608      | 40      |
    | devstack | b70d90d65e464582b6b2161cf3603ced | 1   | 512       | 0       |
    | devstack | 66265572db174a7aa66eba661f58eb9e | 2   | 4096      | 40      |
    +----------+----------------------------------+-----+-----------+---------+
    

    The cpu column shows the sum of the virtual CPUs for instances running on the host.

    The memory_mb column shows the sum of the memory (in MB) allocated to the instances that run on the host.

    The disk_gb column shows the sum of the root and ephemeral disk sizes (in GB) of the instances that run on the host.

    The row that has the value used_now in the PROJECT column shows the sum of the resources allocated to the instances that run on the host, plus the resources allocated to the virtual machine of the host itself.

    The row that has the value used_max in the PROJECT column shows the sum of the resources allocated to the instances that run on the host.

Instance usage statistics

$ nova diagnostics ubuntu
+------------------+---------------+
| Property         | Value         |
+------------------+---------------+
| cpu0_time        | 1138410000000 |
| memory           | 524288        |
| memory-actual    | 524288        |
| memory-rss       | 591664        |
| vda_errors       | -1            |
| vda_read         | 334864384     |
| vda_read_req     | 13851         |
| vda_write        | 2985382912    |
| vda_write_req    | 177180        |
| vnet4_rx         | 45381339      |
| vnet4_rx_drop    | 0             |
| vnet4_rx_errors  | 0             |
| vnet4_rx_packets | 106426        |
| vnet4_tx         | 37513574      |
| vnet4_tx_drop    | 0             |
| vnet4_tx_errors  | 0             |
| vnet4_tx_packets | 162200        |
+------------------+---------------+

General usage per tenant:

$ nova usage-list
Usage from 2016-05-02 to 2016-06-30:
+----------------------------------+-----------+--------------+-----------+---------------+
| Tenant ID                        | Instances | RAM MB-Hours | CPU Hours | Disk GB-Hours |
+----------------------------------+-----------+--------------+-----------+---------------+
| 0eec5c34a7a24a7a8ddad27cb81d2706 | 8         | 240031.10    | 468.81    | 0.00          |
| 92a5d9c313424537b78ae3e42858fd4e | 5         | 483568.64    | 236.12    | 0.00          |
| f34d8f7170034280a42f6318d1a4af34 | 106       | 16888511.58  | 9182.88   | 0.00          |
+----------------------------------+-----------+--------------+-----------+---------------+